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Worried about Piles? Know Everything Here

Worried about Piles? Know Everything Here

Piles are enlarged and bulging blood vessels. Also termed hemorrhoids, they develop in and around the anus. Piles infect the lower rectal area. They can develop both inside and outside the anus.

Internal hemorrhoids are piles within the anus. External hemorrhoids are piles in the lower rectum. Piles are categorized into four types based on their severity:

  • First degree with only bleeding and no prolapse
  • Second degree with prolapse but reduced spontaneously
  • Third-degree with prolapse and need for manual reduction
  • Fourth degree with permanent prolapse.

Causes

The blood vessels around the lower rectum or anus become severely strained. It is when piles occur. Various harmless habits can result in piles. These can be an unhealthy diet or sitting for a long time. Conditions that further increase the risk of pile formation can be:

  • Diarrhoea
  • Constipation
  • Heavy weightlifting
  • Pregnancy
  • Obesity
  • Anal intercourse
  • Sitting on lavatory for a long time

Symptoms of Piles

Piles vary based on their type and occurrence. Some of the common symptoms are:

  • Tender lumps around the anus
  • Anal itching
  • Anal pain
  • Rectal bleeding in case of internal piles
  • Piles prolapsing from the anus

Treatment Options

Treatment for piles based on their severity. Some major treatment options are:

  • Home-based treatments are for mild symptoms. These include staying hydrated, fiber-rich foods, and avoiding strain bowels.
  • Medications include over-the-counter pain relief and stool softeners.
  • Consult a doctor if the pain persists
  • Quick treatment options are medicines, ointments, and suppositories.
  • Surgery is advised for larger and serious hemorrhoids.

Laser Hemorrhoid Surgery

Laser treatment is an out-patient and less-invasive laparoscopic procedure. The treatment follows a fine laser beam for removing the tissue.

The surrounding healthy tissues remain unaffected. People prefer laser treatment for piles for various benefits. Laser piles surgery is a preferred treatment option for acute symptoms.

Conventional surgeries are with several disadvantages. These include time to heal and post-surgical pain. The recovery period is longer. There are also post-surgical complications.

Advantages of Laser Piles Surgery

There are several advantages of laser piles surgery. Some of these advantages are:

  • Less Pain: Pain is a common aspect of surgeries. However, laser treatment is a painless and easy treatment method. Laser cutting involves beams. When compared, open surgery uses the scalpel that causes incisions. Pain is very less when compared to conventional surgeries.
    A majority of patients do not experience any pain during laser piles surgery. During surgery, anesthesia eventually wears off which results in patients feeling pain. However, pain is significantly less in laser surgery. Seek consultation from qualified and experienced doctors.
  • Safer Option: Conventional surgeries are often marred with complicated procedures. When compared, laser piles surgery is a much safer, quick, and effective surgical option for removing piles. The procedure does not require using any smoke, sparks, or steam in the treatment process. As such, this treatment option is much safer than conventional surgeries.
  • Minimal bleeding: Unlike open surgeries, blood loss in laparoscopic surgery is much less. Therefore, fear of infection or blood loss during the treatment is unnecessary. Laser beams cut the piles and partially seal the blood tissue. This means bare minimum blood loss. The sealing further reduces any chance of infection. There is no harm to the tissue. The cut is safe and treatment is safer.
  • Rapid treatment: The laser pile surgery is quickly done. This is why it is a desirable treatment option. The treatment duration is extremely low. The time taken for surgery can be as low as 30 mins. It can also take 1-2 hours if the piles are higher in number. Surgery time is very less compared to traditional surgeries. Patients can go home once the surgery is completed. Overnight stay is generally not required. As such, laparoscopic surgery is a flexible option. One can resume normal activities soon after surgery.
  • Quick discharge: The discharge option is also quick like the rapid treatment. Laser piles surgery is non-invasive. As such, there is no need for overnight stays. Patients can leave the very same day post-surgery. One can resume normal activities afterward.
  • Quick Healing: The healing after laparoscopic surgery is very quick. The healing starts as soon as the surgery is complete. Blood loss is less meaning a low chance of infection. The healing becomes quick. The overall recovery time reduces. Patients can return to their normal lives within a few days. Compared to traditional open surgery, healing is much faster.
  • Simple Procedure: Performing laser piles surgery is easy. A surgeon has control when compared to open surgery. Much of the surgery is technical. On the other hand, open surgeries are highly manual, increasing risks. The rate of success is much higher for laser piles surgery.
  • Follow-up: The follow-up visits post laser surgery are fewer. In open surgery, the risks of cuts opening or wounds are higher. These issues are absent in laser surgery. Follow-up visits are, therefore, rare.
  • Recurrence: Piles recurring after laser surgery is rare. There are no external cuts or infections. Therefore, the risk of piles recurring is low.
    Post-surgical infections: Post-surgical infections are minimal. There are no cuts, external or internal wounds. The incision is invasive and through a laser beam. As such, no post-surgical infections occur.

Disadvantages of Later Piles Surgery

No surgery is free from drawbacks. Laser pile surgery has some drawbacks. These are:

  • Expensive equipment: Laser piles surgery requires high-quality and advanced equipment. Only a few hospitals have this facility. Finding reliable and affordable laser surgery options is often difficult.
  • Machine catching fire: There are rare incidents where the equipment catches fire. It is due to defects and malfunctioning. Improper equipment handling also results in malfunction. Inexperienced surgeons may not handle the equipment well, causing problems. Prior information on hospital quality and credibility is critical.
  • Training: Surgeons performing the surgery must have required training. Untrained surgeons can cause complications. Patients must check the credibility and experience of the surgeon.
  • Spare Laser: Laser beams for treating diseases are difficult. The laser fiber is only available for limited cases. As such, extra laser fiber is essential during surgery.
  • Treatment costs: The treatment costs are higher when compared to open surgery. However, hospitals provide insurance and other financial facilities.
  • Uncontrollable bleeding: Laser surgery can cause uncontrolled bleeding in rare cases. Healthy tissues can get affected. It can cause significant damage.
  • Fibrosis: Laser beams can cause tissue fibrosis. It can result in tissue fissures in the future. It is a secondary complication in laser piles surgery.
  • Anesthesia: The effect of anesthesia reduces during surgery. It can create complications once the patient wakes while in surgery.

When To See a Doctor

Consult a doctor if you are bleeding while passing stool. If home remedies fail even after a week, seek immediate medical attention.

Rectal bleeding might occur due to various reasons. Therefore, it is essential to have proper screening and diagnosis. Look for signs such as changes in consistency or color.

Seek immediate care in case of significant rectal bleeding. Other emergency symptoms include fainting or dizziness.

Prevention

Preventing piles is extremely easy. However, we ignore these habits resulting in piles. We need to keep our stools soft for easy passing. Prevention strategies for keeping them away are:

  • Eat high-fiber foods such as whole grains, vegetables, and fruits
  • Drink fluids, water, and juices
  • Considering fiber supplements
  • Avoid straining when passing stool
  • Do not avoid the urge
  • Exercise and stay active
  • Avoid long sitting periods

Conclusion

Consult a proctologist in case of severe piles issues. Notice symptoms like burning sensation, itching, or strains in bowel movements. Do not ignore chronic constipation symptoms. In case of any of the above symptoms, visit the hospital immediately. Remember that not every issue needs laser piles surgery. Talk to a proctologist or general physician now.

Do’s and Don’ts after Incisional Hernia Treatment

Do’s and Don’ts after Incisional Hernia Treatment

Do you know that almost 2 percent of the world population suffers from a hernia? When a tissue bulges from its actual location in the body, it results in a hernia. A hernia is more common in men compared to women. Also, infants & children are more prone to this protrusion compared to adults. Hernia treatment is mainly done via laparoscopic surgery. Hernias occur around our abdominal cavities, usually between the hips and the chest.

What are the types of incisional hernia?

Hernias are found in two major areas. These are the abdominal wall & groin area. The abdominal hernia is also called a ventral hernia. While hernias around the groin & legs area are called inguinal hernias. It is further divided into three categories:

  • Hiatus hernia is found near our diaphragm separating chest and abdomen
  • An umbilical hernia develops around our belly button area
  • Incisional hernia is found around the area where previous surgeries have been done

What are the Symptoms of Hernia?

Untreated hernia can create a lot of trouble. It gets bigger and worse with time. A major problem with a hernia is that people are unaware of its existence. Immediately seek a doctor if you have a bulge or protrusion. It can be around the abdomen area or the public area. Don’t ignore pain when sitting upright or standing. It might be a hernia!

Some of the major symptoms of a hernia are:

  • Pain
  • Bulging around the area
  • Burning sensation
  • Vomiting
  • Nausea
  • Weakness

What are the risk factors of hernia?

A hernia can develop due to several instances. Some common reasons are strenuous physical activities and heavy lifting. Some people are more prone to hernia than others. Those who are:

  • Above the age of 60
  • Smokers
  • Born with soft or weak muscles
  • Have chronic constipation
  • Pregnancy

What are the treatment options for Hernia?

The best option for a painful hernia is surgery. Doctors sometimes prefer medicines or watchful waiting. These options are in case the patient is a weak or compromised system. Surgery is recommended by doctors in most cases. Hernia repair surgeries can be ‘open’ or laparoscopic.

  • Open surgery: The surgery follows cutting the body where the hernia is located. The protruding part is pushed back. The weak muscular wall in then stitched back. Some patients need extra support in the form of mesh implantation.
  • Laparoscopic surgery: This surgery involves microscopic incisions rather than cuts. Surgical tools are then inserted through this insertion. After completing the process, the incisions are closed.
  • Robotic Hernia: It is a similar type of surgery to incisional hernia repair. The surgeon performs the surgery via a console. It is generally used for smaller hernias and weaker areas. It is also used for reconstructing the abdominal muscles and the wall.

What to expect after hernia surgery?

Recovering after a hernia treatment requires patience. Basic tasks become awkward and difficult. Have your family or relatives stay with you for 1-2 days if possible. Here are a few things you can expect immediately after your hernia surgery:

  • The incision(s) area will remain painful for some time. Nurses will check on this pain. In case of unmanageable pain, you will receive pain medication. It is important to be transparent about your pain status.
  • If the pain is not controlled, you will have difficulty breathing, coughing, using your spirometer, getting up, and walking.
  • After the surgery, you need time to heal. This can take two to five more hospital days. Your exact surgery will determine the hospital stays.
  • Refrain from performing only basic activities till four days from your hernia surgery
  • Doctors also recommend light stretching and walking.
  • It is important to take the medications as needed and directed. Self-medication is a complete no-no.
  • It is important to prevent constipation during the initial days after surgery. Make a bathroom schedule and stick to it. This will help the body get accustomed. Avoid any bladder pressure. If there is an urge, do not wait.
  • Keep checking the incision area for any drains. Call your doctor in case of drainage higher than normal.
  • Call immediately if the prescribed medication is not relieving your pain.

Do’s and Don’ts during hernia

Getting a discharge from the hospital does not mean you are completely healed. There are certain instructions to follow. These can help in fast recovery and minimum complications. Here are certain do’s and don’ts after incisional hernia surgery:

  • Avoid consuming alcohol for a minimum of 2-3 days after surgery
  • Do not operate any heavy machinery post-surgery
  • Avoid signing any legal papers for at least 48 hours after surgery. You might be under the influence of surgical anesthesia.
  • Do not take any pain medication without your doctor’s recommendations
  • Do not stretch or strain as this will put sudden pressure on your wound.
  • Avoid lifting heavy weights, exercise, or any strenuous activity
  • When exercising, use your back and knees and not your abdominals
  • Opt for right exercises like walking for a speedy recovery
  • Avoid bath or shower for two days
  • Based on your comfort level and doctor suggestions, resume your sexual activities.
  • Do not ignore pain. In case of any discomfort or pain after any activity, just stop it.

What should be my diet after a hernia treatment?

Losing appetite after surgery is normal. Reasons could be stress post-surgery or pain. It is important to maintain a good diet after surgery. A proper diet can help speed up the process of healing after hernia treatment.

  • Protein Intake: Your protein intake should be high. Include eggs, soy, fish, cottage cheese, nuts, dairy, and meat in your diet.
  • Vitamin C: Include vitamin C in your diet for a speedy recovery. Include citrus fruits like lemon and oranges, potatoes, tomatoes, spinach, and cauliflower in your diet.
  • Vitamin D: Consume foods high in vitamin D. These include cereals, orange juice, and almond milk
  • Calcium intake: Calcium intake is important for your bones and strength. Include dairies like cheese, milk, and yogurt. Also add seeds like chia, sesame, and poppy seeds. Almonds are also a good option.

Complications after hernia surgery

Being careful is critical after incisional hernia surgery. In case of any complications, call your doctor immediately. Serious complications can be:

  • Sudden rise in pain around the surgical area
  • Increased redness around the incision area
  • Drainage or bleeding at the site
  • Vomiting or Nausea
  • Trouble Urinating
  • High Fever
  • Excessive bruising or swelling at the site

Conclusion

Some of the most common causes of hernia are prolonged cough, chronic constipation, heavy weightlifting, and poor nutrition. Obesity can also increase the risk of hernia. Once a hernia is detected, surgery is usually the right option. A good diet and a healthy lifestyle can dramatically reduce the occurrence of hernias.

Foods that Decrease the Risk of Gallstones

Foods that Decrease the Risk of Gallstones

The human body has many organs. Each organ has specific functions and roles. These functions help in the orderly running of the body. The gallbladder is one such small yet important organ. It lives below our liver. The gallbladder stores the bile from the liver. This bile releases to our small intestine for digesting food.

The gallbladder has high sensitivity. Thus, maintaining a healthy and nutritious diet is essential. Research indicates that people with a healthy diet have lower chances of gallbladder diseases.

Gallbladder stones are a common condition requiring surgery. It is thus essential to maintain a good diet. There is a certain food that promotes a strong gallbladder. Yet, some foods increase the likelihood of gallstones or inflammation of the gallbladder.

Gallbladder health usually depends on foods we eat as well as those we avoid. Especially for those with gallbladder problems such as gallstones or inflammation. To maintain a strong and healthy gallbladder, follow some simple health and lifestyle guidelines. Failure to do so often results in removal of the gallbladder.

Post-surgery Gallbladder diet

Believe it or not, developing gallstones is much easier if the diet is unhealthy. Gallbladder removal surgery is for problems in the gallbladder. These include inflammation of the gallbladder or cholesterol in your bile. This cholesterol hardens and becomes gallstones.

The gallbladder is usually removed to reduce the risk factors of gallstones. Post-surgery symptoms like loose stools and diarrhea are common. You will experience these as the bile released into the intestines.

Avoid these food items post gallbladder surgery to reduce the side effects:

  • Foods with high-fat content
  • Processed, fried, or greasy food items
  • Gravies or cream sauce
  • Full-fat dairy

Instead, doctors recommend a high-fiber diet with low fat. Yet, the fiber intake should increase. One can also start with smaller and more frequent meals.

Risks of Gallstones

Gallbladder problems are of two major types. The first is inflammation of the gallbladder. The second is cholesterol in your bile resulting in gallstones. Small gallstones are very small in size and do not create any issues. Yet, gallbladder issues can include the following symptoms:

  • Upper-right abdominal pain. This pain increases post meals or after eating high-fat foods.
  • Losing appetite
  • Vomiting
  • Nausea
  • Jaundice from blocking of the gallbladder duct
  • Low-grade fever
  • Tea-colored urine
  • Light-colored stools

Gallstones are painful. Bigger-sized stones can cause blockage. Over time, the blockage can become dangerous. In these conditions, removing the gallbladder is the only option.

Women have higher chances of developing gallstones compared to men. Using birth control, pregnancy, or using hormone therapy can increase the risk of developing gallstones. Some major risk factors are:

  • Gallbladder problems in the family, including personal and immediate family
  • Rapid loss of weight
  • Excess weight gain
  • Heart diseases
  • Diabetes
  • Diets with refined carbs and low fiber
  • Food allergies
  • Lactose intolerance

A healthy diet

A gallbladder diet aims to reduce the stress on the gallbladder. Many studies have tried to define a healthy diet for a healthy gallbladder. Yet, no one definition can suffice. In general, studies define healthy and unhealthy diets as follows:

Healthy Diet: High in vegetables, fresh fruits, fruit juices, whole grains, spices, nuts legumes, and low-fat dairy items

Unhealthy Diet: High in processed meat, refined grains, soft drinks. Also, high-fat dairy, red meat, sugar, tea, baked potato, solid fat, egg, salt, snacks, and picked food.

What Foods to Eat?

Plant-based Food: They provide a high source of antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals. They help remove toxins from the body. These toxins accumulate from processed foods and stress.

Lean Protein: It is important for the growth and repair of body tissues. Dairy products and red meat have high protein content. Yet, they are high in unhealthy fats. Low-fat protein options are an available and good option. These include:

  • Fish
  • Poultry
  • Seeds and nuts
  • Soy & soy products
  • Zero-fat dairy products
  • Legumes like lentils and beans
  • Soy milk as dairy alternatives

Avoid processed dairy and meat products for their high added salt content. Choose fresh foods and organic products for a healthier diet.

Fiber: They help by supporting digestive health. Fiber protects us from gallbladder infections by increasing food movement throughout the gut. They also lower the production of bile acids. Top Fiber sources are:

  • Vegetables
  • Fruits
  • Seeds and nuts
  • Whole grains
  • Legumes

Healthy Fats: These are unsaturated fats like omega 3. They help in protecting the gallbladder. Sources of healthy fats can be:

  • Nuts like walnuts
  • Cold-water fish
  • Flaxseed
  • Fish oil or flaxseed oil

Fat or oil supplements are often used as an alternative. But it is important to check with your doctor first. Supplements can often lead to allergies or other issues.

Coffee: Moderate consumption of coffee is ok for gallbladder function. Coffee can provide several benefits. These can be stimulating bladder action and intestinal activity. It is also known to balance certain chemicals. Yet, moderation is the key. High coffee intake can reverse the good effects on the gallbladder.

Calcium: Calcium is critical for gallbladder health. It is also important for the health of the body. Calcium is present in the following sources:

  • Dark & leafy vegetables like broccoli and kale
  • Dairy foods like milk, cheese, and yogurt
  • Orange juice
  • Sardines
  • Dairy alternatives like flax or almond milk

People with a high risk of developing gallstones should opt for zero-fat dairy items

Vitamins C, magnesium & folate: They help in preventing gallbladder diseases. Major sources are:

  • Green and red peppers
  • Oranges, citrus foods
  • Broccoli
  • Strawberries
  • Tomatoes
  • Kiwifruit
  • Cashews and almonds
  • spinach
  • Peanut & peanut butter
  • Edamame, black beans
  • Potato
  • Rice
  • Avocado
  • Soy milk
  • Banana
  • Fortified cereals
  • Beef liver
  • Asparagus

Supplements are available, though it is good to get the nutrition from fresh sources. Take doctor recommendations before taking supplements.

What Foods to avoid?

Certain foods increase the risk of developing gallstones. If you have any concerns about your gallbladder health, avoid or limit the following food items:

  • Added sweeteners and sugars
  • White flour
  • Pre-made baked items like cakes and cookies
  • Refined grains
  • Chocolate and candy
  • Processed meats
  • Red & fatty meats
  • Processed and fried foods
  • Full-fat dairy
  • Fast foods
  • Ice-cream
  • Pre-made sauces and salad dressings

Lifestyle Tips

Staying true to your diet is often impossible. Our lives are dependent on external factors like environment, family, and friends. So, we must maintain a balanced diet. This includes maintaining a healthy diet along with lifestyle changes. These include:

  • Weight Management: Keep the BMI within a satisfactory range. It helps in avoiding obesity and gallbladder problems
  • Avoid rapid loss of weight: When planning weight loss, it is important to reduce risk. Select steady weight loss, reducing strain on the gallbladder and the liver.
  • Avoid allergens: Allergies can trigger several gallbladder issues. Take allergy tests and opt for a suitable diet based on the test.
  • Quit Smoking: Regular smoking creates gallbladder dysfunction, such as gallbladder cancer.

Conclusion

Gallbladder issues are difficult, sometimes painful, and even dangerous. Having the right diet is important to a healthy gallbladder. Recommendations from doctors and dieticians are essential for avoiding loopholes or amateur issues. A healthy diet is a key to a healthy gallbladder.

Liver Cancer 101: What are the Five Gospel Truths about the Disease

What are the Five Gospel Truths about the Disease

Almost all of us are aware of a certain organ that resides in our body. The organ that is the reason behind most of our body’s natural performance. It is our liver. It is the body’s largest internal organ and it’s located just below the right lung and diaphragm, under the right ribs (the membrane below the lungs that moves up and down as you breathe). The liver is responsible for a number of important functions. It absorbs and stores many of the nutrients from the gut, produces some of the clotting proteins needed to halt bleeding from a cut or injury, and secretes bile into the intestine to aid in nutrient absorption.

The liver is also responsible for eliminating harmful waste from the body.

And now we circle back to us, the keeper of this wonderful liver. We do not take the health of our liver seriously and that can come back to haunt us with illness and diseases of the organ that will not only be causing harm to the organ itself but us too. 

Our kind has been blessed with some enormous sources of talent. But some stars go out sooner than their time due to certain diseases that they have no control over. A certain rock musician, David Bowie comes to mind when we think about the repercussions of untimely illnesses. Bowie died of liver cancer in his New York City apartment on January 10, 2016. He was 69 and was diagnosed just 18 months prior to his demise. One may come to think that this man had lived his days, but he could have gone on to live a few more if he didn’t suffer from this type of cancer. Now this case is the same with most people who have been afflicted by liver cancer. And here is actually the scary bit, liver cancer actually can go undiagnosed for years. It isn’t until very late that people get to know that their liver is not okay. 

There is a lack of understanding of the disease, and far too many people are diagnosed too late. Raising awareness of liver cancer is critical for improving early detection and prognosis.

Here are 5 interesting facts about liver cancer that you may not know and that may help you to know:

Liver cirrhosis is the main cause of liver cancer most of the time.

  • Cirrhosis (liver scarring) is the leading cause of liver cancer, albeit only 3 to 4% of persons with the illness will go on to develop liver cancer.

Cirrhosis and certain causes of it have a particularly strong link. These are the following:

  • Hepatitis B and C
  • Alcoholism
  • Haemochromatosis which is a genetic condition characterized by an excess of iron in the body
  • NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) is another growing problem.

In India, liver cancer is becoming one of the most rapidly spreading cancers.

  • In India, there are around 3-5 instances of liver cancer per 100,000 persons, resulting in 30,000 to 50,000 new cases per year. Given the high prevalence of Hepatitis B in this country, the number of liver cancer patients does not reflect the whole situation. Alcohol is a key contributor to primary liver cancer, in addition to the main culprits Hepatitis B or C. Diabetes is another key risk factor, with diabetics being two and a half times more likely to develop chronic liver disease (CLD), which can lead to liver cancer.

Liver cancer can be classified into four main types.

  • The most frequent type of primary liver cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (cancer that starts in the liver). HCC, also known as hepatoma, is identified in nine out of ten persons. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma is a rare type of primary liver cancer that usually affects younger people. The causes and risk factors are not known. Bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma) is another type of primary liver cancer. It starts in the cells lining the bile duct. Angiosarcoma is a very rare type of liver cancer, which starts in the blood vessels of the liver.

Men are more likely to be affected than women.

  • Men are far more likely than women to get hepatocellular carcinoma. According to the data, the age-adjusted incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in India ranges from 0.7 to 7.5 per 100,000 population per year for men and 0.2 to 2.2 per 100,000 population per year for women. In India, the male-to-female ratio for HCC is 4:1. The presentation age ranges from 40 to 70 years old.

Liver transplant can be a possible cure if detected early.

  • If liver cancer is found early enough and the patient is healthy enough to tolerate surgery, liver transplantation may be an option. The surgery’s goal is to thoroughly eliminate the cancer. Only the generosity of donors ready to donate their organs makes the surgery possible.

Given all of the above, if you are suspecting liver cancer or anything similar, simply visit an expert or your general physician for suggestions. They will accordingly guide you to get proper treatment if so. In case of liver cancer or cancer, a doctor who is qualified will look into your diagnosis. These doctors are usually expert oncologists and oncosurgeons.

Medica’s Oncology department excels in providing world-class cancer treatment driven by their collective clinical excellence of over 30+ years. With a multidisciplinary approach to treating all types and forms of cancer, our oncologists and onco-surgeons are supported by the latest cancer treatment technologies along with a team of highly-skilled reconstructive surgeons who deliver extensive treatment to all of our patients, adults and children alike. 

The Dangers of Sleep Apnea

The Dangers of Sleep Apnea

Sleep apnea is one of the most common sleep disorders, affecting over 20 million adults, with an estimated 80% of cases remaining untreated. “Apnea” is a Greek term that means “without air.” Sleep apnea is the involuntary interruption of breathing while a person is sleeping. Most of us aren’t aware of it, that could be the basis of a slew of new health problems. If left untreated for a long time, this could have significant effects.

There are several types of sleep apnea, but obstructive sleep apnea is the most frequent. People also suffer from central sleep apnea(CSA) and complex or mixed sleep apnea.

Symptoms include:
Snoring: The most prevalent sign of apnea is loud, continuous snoring. It’s caused by a partial blockage or obstruction, which prevents air from freely passing through the airways.

Daytime Sleepiness: Excessive daytime sleepiness(EDS) is one of the most common and often neglected sign. EDS is a condition in which a person has extreme weariness during the day.

Headaches: Vascular headaches are caused by blood vessels expanding due to low oxygen levels.

Obesity: Having OSA is almost always linked to a person’s body weight. Obese people are more prone than those who maintain a healthy weight to suffer from it.

Mood swings, depression, or irritability: Lack of quality sleep regularly can make you irritable, anxious, and short-tempered, and can even lead to melancholy.

Low oxygen levels in the body might have long-term detrimental health repercussions. This includes the following:

– Heart disease
– Stroke
– High blood pressure
– Pre-diabetes and diabetes
– Depression

Who can be affected?
It affects approximately 25% of males and roughly 10% of women. It affects people of all ages, including infants and children, as well as people over 50 and those who are overweight.

Patients with obstructive sleep apnea share several physical and clinical characteristics. Excessive weight, a big neck, and anatomical anomalies that reduce the diameter of the upper airway, such as nasal blockage, a low-hanging soft palate, swollen tonsils, or a tiny jaw with an overbite, are examples.

Due to the high occurrence of sleep apnea in cardiac arrhythmias and heart failure (it’s virtually a coin flip whether the patient has it), doctors advise that you seek medical help as soon as possible.

What kind of lifestyle changes are required?
Normalizing breathing requires lifestyle changes, which are key first stages in treatment.

They are as follows:

– Establish good sleeping habits
– Quit smoking
– Abstain from drinking
– Follow a heart-healthy diet
– Maintain a healthy weight
– Practice sleeping on your slide

Visit a doctor or a specialist, if you start showing symptoms. Medica has dedicated departments for Sleep Apnea Treatment in Kolkata where specialists treat it through medicine, surgery and other types of modern therapy.

Antibody Cocktail Therapy for Covid Treatment? Here’s What You Need to Know

Antibody Cocktail Therapy for Covid Treatment?

COVID-19 has been living amongst us for sometime now. Our natural response of fear towards this calamity seems to be fading with each passing day. This indifference towards the disease now has cost us another wave of fresh cases. And this time the fiend has a new face: Omicron. With the number of rising cases, it is only obvious that one does everything in their power to stop this deadly and hyper-infectious virus from spreading any further. COVID-19 has claimed many lives across the globe and has sent many great nations’ medical infrastructure to a toss.

As per the national news, most people recently diagnosed with the Omicron variant were all fully vaccinated. So, does that mean vaccinations don’t help us in any way? That will be wrong of us to assume actually. The honest fact is that getting vaccinated is your first defence against coronavirus. But it is only wise to realize that only vaccinations are not going to be enough. Taking precautions to avoid getting infected is always the smarter choice. Thanks to certain breakthroughs in COVID-19 treatment today, we can aid ourselves to defend against the virus’s effects with groundbreaking efficacy.

Various treatments are being tested by health administrations around the world in order to successfully treat affected individuals and reduce the burden on medical manpower working day and night against COVID-19 for the last few years. Monoclonal antibody treatment, also known as COVID antibody cocktail therapy is one of the few names that has emerged as a promising means of COVID defense.

What is a Covid Antibody Cocktail?

It’s a combination of man-made antibodies that inhibits coronavirus from infecting new cells and lowers the risk of death in patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 who haven’t mounted their own natural antibody response.

How Does it Work?

The cocktail comprises two monoclonal antibodies, which are man-made proteins that mimic natural antibodies found in the immune system. They bind to non-overlapping portions of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in the key location where the virus latches onto human cells. Thus, preventing new viral particles from infecting further cells.

The use of two antibodies rather than just one minimizes the risk of drug-resistant virus strains developing. These two man-made antibodies are called Casirivimab and Imdevimab. As per recent findings presented by the pharma company that created this cocktail, those who received the injection were 81% less likely to become ill with COVID-19 than those who received a placebo.

“A placebo is a medical treatment that appears to be “real” yet isn’t. It could be in the form of a pill, a shot, or another “false” treatment. The only thing that all placebos have in common is that they don’t contain any active ingredients that can affect your health.”

If a person is already ill, monoclonal antibodies will keep them from developing severe symptoms that will necessitate hospitalization. Monoclonal antibodies can fight the virus and save people from getting sick in the first place if they’ve been exposed.

Trials in Mumbai

In a hospital trial at Mumbai, 101 patients ranging in age from 18 to 45 years, 45 patients ranging in age from 45 to 59 years, and 53 patients ranging in age from 60 years participated. A total of 74 people out of a total of 199 had at least one comorbidity.

A total of 199 individuals with mild to moderate blockage received treatment. 179 of them had a fever at the commencement of treatment, 158 coughed with a fever or coughed without a temperature. In addition, four patients required oxygen.

The patients who were administered a mixture of two antibodies, Casirivimab and Imdevimab, had to receive therapy in the hospital for just 5 to 6 days, based on the conclusions reached at the end of the treatment.

After the observation was completed, it was discovered that the patients’ fevers had subsided within 48 hours after receiving the combination treatment. Giving this combined medicine by saline took only one hour. During that time, the patients in question were closely followed. This also allows the medicine to be dispensed through outpatient care (OPD) rather than hospitalization.

What are the Advantages of Covid Antibody Cocktail Therapy?

These combination therapies are cost-effective for patients in the long run since they eliminate the need for medical oxygen and other costly medications, as well as the necessity for hospitalization.

Given the medical manpower available, it is possible to treat patients on an outpatient basis, and because the amount of time a patient spends in the hospital is reduced, doctors will have less job stress. The entire treatment process lasts no more than 6 hours.

Cocktail Antibody

Who is Eligible for the Shot?

The antibody cocktail shot is being given to those who qualify the following parameters:

  • Patients who are at high-risk of contracting the virus. Patients that are considered to be at high risk are known to have diabetes, lung disorders, cardiac problems, excess body weight or are of old age or are pregnant.
  • Patients who are above the age of 12 and have a body weight of over 40Kg
  • Patients who have been tested positive

Another important requirement is that the patient should not require any oxygen support during the treatment procedure.

How is the Monoclonal Antibody Cocktail Administered?

Intravenous (IV) infusion is used to administer monoclonal antibody treatment. These infusions take around an hour to administer, followed by an hour of observation and monitoring in one of our outpatient infusion clinics.

Does it have any After Effects?

An allergic reaction is one possible side effect of monoclonal antibody therapy. These responses usually only happen during or shortly after the infusion, and your care team will be on the lookout for any signs of an allergic reaction. However, because an allergic reaction to an infusion might be delayed, you should contact your doctor right once if you detect any of the following symptoms of an allergic reaction:

  • Chills and/or fever
  • Nausea
  • Headache
  • Breathing problems
  • Blood pressure that is too low
  • Wheezing
  • Lips, face, or throat swelling
  • Muscle pain
  • Itching or rashes

Conclusion

There was no specific treatment for COVID-19 when the epidemic first started. We’ve come a long way since then. Physicians now have a means to assist prevent severe symptoms in patients who are at high risk thanks to monoclonal antibody therapy. Medica Superspecialty Hospital, Kolkata is now giving out shots of this antibody cocktail. If you are interested, you can check out our website for more information or click on the link to register online.

Myths Vs. Facts: Anal Fissures

Myths Vs. Facts: Anal Fissures

For many people, the pain, potential embarrassment, and experience of seeing blood coming from the buttocks can be emotionally traumatic, causing them to suffer in silence rather than seeking treatment. An anal fissure, which is often confused with haemorrhoids, is a tear in the sensitive tissue that lines the anus. Anal fissures usually heal on their own with conservative treatment.

Around one in every ten people suffer from anal fissures at any age. They are most common among infants & middle-aged individuals. Yet, they can affect people of all ages and gender. Facing anal fissures might feel embarrassing. As such, people often avoid the symptoms until it becomes painful and fatal. Read here to find out more.

What are Anal Fissures?

Anal fissures are tears or cuts that occur within the anus. The anus is an opening via which the stool goes out of our body. It goes upward into the anal canal. Anal fissures are common conditions and a major anus-related issue. Almost 15 percent of the colon or rectal visits across hospitals are due to anal fissures. An anal fissure can affect both women and men in an equal manner. They can also affect both old and young people. Anal fissures can result in pain while bowel movements. The condition is often severe. An anal fissure is a common reason for rectal bleeding among infants.

Causes of Anal Fissure

There are several causes of anal fissures. Some of them are:

  • Constipation: Passing hard and large stools can cause tears around the anal area.
  • Diarrhea: Anal fissures can develop with repeated diarrhea.
  • Childbirth and Pregnancy: Pregnant women are more prone to developing anal fissures. They develop towards the end stages of the pregnancy. Childbirth can result in tearing of the anus lining.
  • Sexually-transmitted infections (STIs): STIs or STDs have high links to anal fissures. These include HIV, HPV, syphilis, chlamydia or herpes.
  • Underlying conditions: Conditions like Crohn’s disease can create ulcers. Inflammatory bowel issues are also known to cause ulcers. These ulcers can form anal fissures.

Signs and Symptoms of Anal Fissure

The major symptoms of anal fissures are:

  • Pain while passing stools. Sharp pain while passing stool and a deeper burning sensation afterwards. Patients often avoid the toilet fearing pain. This results in constipation and further complicates the issue.
  • Avoiding the bathroom can worsen the tears and pain. Stools become larger and harder. Even cleaning with toilet paper can cause pain.
  • Fresh blood while passing stools or cleaning is a symptom of anal fissures. Bleeding is common when infants have anal fissures. 
  • Itching and scratching across the anal position. This sensation is persistent or intermittent
  • Dysuria is discomfort while urinating. Frequent urination can also cause pain.

Myths vs Facts

There are several myths related to anal fissures. It is important to expose these myths. Here are a few:

Myth 1: You are the only one suffering from Anal Fissure.
Fact: Absolutely not! An anal fissure is a very common disease among young infants too. It affects people of all ages. Also, susceptibility towards anal fissures usually reduces with age.

Myth 2: Anal fissures affect only the elderly.
Fact: No. Anal fissures can affect people of all ages. It is more common among young infants but people of all ages can get infected. Anal fissures occur due to several internal and external reasons. These can be passing big or hard stools or intestinal swelling.

Myth 3: Anal Fissure treatment needs surgery
Fact: Not really. The Majority of anal fissures improve with simple remedies. These can be increasing fibre intake and sitz baths. Sometimes anal fissures need medication.

Doctors suggest surgery when a patient is not responding to any medical treatment. It is important to treat fissures in an appropriate manner. It is often mistaken for a haemorrhoid. As such, having it checked can be helpful. The surgery is delicate but it is generally without any risks.

Myth 4: Spicy foods and cold surfaces cause Anal Fissure.
Fact: This is a myth. Spicy foods cannot be blamed for anal fissures. These occur due to uncoordinated anal activities & passing hard stool. Yet, if a person is already having anal fissures, it is best to avoid any spicy food for some time. They can also cause pain for people having digestive troubles.

Myth 5: Exercises must be avoided if you have Anal Fissure.
Fact: Absolutely wrong. One can resume exercises based on the severity of the condition. In case of mild symptoms, exercises can be resumed. A person with home remedies or few medications can continue their exercise regime. But, avoid heavy lifting so that recovery can be quick.

Myth 6: Chances of cancer go up with piles
Fact: No. Piles or anal fissures do not cause or increase the risks of rectal or colon cancer.

Prevention

Preventing anal fissures is easy. Follow some hygiene steps:

  • Keep the stools soft: Need to eat a nutritional and well-balanced diet. It should have high fibre. Ensure adequate intake of liquid and fluid. Drink plenty of water
  • Don’t delay bathroom: Waiting means stools becoming harder and larger. It causes anal fissures.
  • Babies: Change diapers at regular intervals. Keep checking for redness or rashes.
  • Sharp Foods: One should avoid foods that are not well-digested. These can be popcorn or nuts. Check with your dietician for allergic foods.
  • Wiping: Avoid using hard toilet paper in fissure symptoms. Doctors recommend using moistened cotton pads or clothes for susceptible individuals. Avoid perfumed or rough toilet paper.
  • Exercise: Unlike several myths, exercises actually help. Regular exercise helps in reducing constipation. This reduces the risks of fissures. Hydrate well before & after exercises.
  • Straining: Avoid sitting in the toilet for long periods. This results in straining.

Conclusion

Treating anal fissures is not difficult. Various treatments are available for treating anal fissures. Most of them are non-surgical, and done via medicines and home treatment. A healthy and hygienic lifestyle reduces the chances of anal fissures.

Medica Superspecialty Hospital, Kolkata’s Laser Proctology Program strives towards treating through the minimal invasive technique. Our renowned and experienced surgeons who will spend a significant amount of time with you in order to diagnose your condition. We have all types of diagnostic facilities available at our premises to provide you with the correct diagnostic results. All pre-surgery medical diagnostics are done for you right here at Medica.

Medica Superspecialty Hospital, Kolkata’s Laser Proctology Program strives towards treating through the minimal invasive technique. Our renowned and experienced surgeons who will spend a significant amount of time with you in order to diagnose your condition. We have all types of diagnostic facilities available at our premises to provide you with the correct diagnostic results. All pre-surgery medical diagnostics are done for you right here at Medica.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Laser Piles Surgery

Advantages and Disadvantages of Laser Piles Surgery

Every year, nearly 10 million people in India suffer from the agony of piles, a disease that is rapidly spreading as a result of stress, insomnia, constipation, and a growing preference for fast food in the sedentary lifestyle of urbanites.

Piles are enlarged and bulging blood vessels. Also termed haemorrhoids, they develop in and around the anus. Piles infect the lower rectal area. They can develop both inside and outside the anus.

Internal hemorrhoids are piles within the anus. External hemorrhoids are piles in the lower rectum. Piles are categorized into four types based on their severity:

  • First degree with only bleeding and no prolapse
  • Second degree with prolapse but reduced spontaneously
  • Third-degree with prolapse and need for manual reduction
  • Fourth degree with permanent prolapse.

Causes

The blood vessels around the lower rectum or anus become severely strained. It is when piles occur. Various harmless habits can result in piles. These can be an unhealthy diet or sitting for a long time. Conditions that further increase the risk of pile formation can be:

  • Diarrhoea
  • Constipation
  • Heavy weightlifting
  • Pregnancy
  • Obesity
  • Anal intercourse
  • Sitting on lavatory for a long time

Symptoms

Piles vary based on their type and occurrence. Some of the common symptoms are:

  • Tender lumps around the anus
  • Anal itching
  • Anal pain
  • Rectal bleeding in case of internal piles
  • Piles prolapsing from the anus

Treatment Options

Treatment for piles based on their severity. Some major treatment options are:

  • Home-based treatments are for mild symptoms. These include staying hydrated, fiber-rich foods, and avoiding strain bowels
  • Medications include over-the-counter pain relief and stool softeners.
  • Consult a doctor if the pain persists
  • Quick treatment options are medicines, ointments, and suppositories
  • Surgery is advised for larger and serious hemorrhoids

Laser Hemorrhoid Surgery

Laser treatment is an out-patient and less-invasive laparoscopic procedure. The treatment follows a fine laser beam for removing the tissue. The surrounding healthy tissues remain unaffected. People prefer laser treatment for piles for various benefits. Laser Piles Surgery is a preferred treatment option for acute symptoms.

Conventional surgeries are with several disadvantages. These include time to heal and post-surgical pain. The recovery period is longer. There are also post-surgical complications. –

Advantages of Laser Piles Surgery

There are several advantages of Laser Piles Surgery. Some of these advantages are:

  • Pain is a common aspect of surgeries. However, laser treatment is a painless and easy treatment method. Laser cutting involves beams. When compared, open surgery uses the scalpel that causes incisions. Pain is very less when compared to conventional surgeries.

A majority of patients do not experience any pain during Laser Piles Surgery. During surgery, anesthesia eventually wears off which results in patients feeling pain. However, pain is significantly less in laser surgery. Seek consultation from qualified and experienced doctors.

  • Safer Option: Conventional surgeries are often marred with complicated procedures. When compared, Laser Piles Surgery is a much safer, quick, and effective surgical option for removing piles. The procedure does not require using any smoke, sparks, or steam in the treatment process. As such, this treatment option is much safer than conventional surgeries.
  • Minimal Bleeding: Unlike open surgeries, blood loss in laparoscopic surgery is much less. Therefore, fear of infection or blood loss during the treatment is unnecessary. Laser beams cut the piles and partially seal the blood tissue. This means bare minimum blood loss. The sealing further reduces any chance of infection. There is no harm to the tissue. The cut is safe and treatment is safer.
  • Rapid Treatment: The Laser Piles Surgery is quickly done. This is why it is a desirable treatment option. The treatment duration is extremely low. The time taken for surgery can be as low as 30 mins. It can also take 1-2 hours if the piles are higher in number. Surgery time is very less compared to traditional surgeries. Patients can go home once the surgery is completed. Overnight stay is generally not required. As such, laparoscopic surgery is a flexible option. One can resume normal activities soon after surgery.
  • Quick Discharge: The discharge option is also quick like the rapid treatment. Laser Piles Surgery is non-invasive. As such, there is no need for overnight stays. Patients can leave the very same day post-surgery. One can resume normal activities afterward.
  • Quick Healing: The healing after laparoscopic surgery is very quick. The healing starts as soon as the surgery is complete. Blood loss is less, meaning a low chance of infection. The healing becomes quick. The overall recovery time reduces. Patients can return to their normal lives within a few days. Compared to traditional open surgery, healing is much faster.
  • Simple Procedure: Performing Laser Piles Surgery is easy. A surgeon has control when compared to open surgery. Much of the surgery is technical. On the other hand, open surgeries are highly manual, increasing risks. The rate of success is much higher for Laser Piles Surgery.
  • Follow-up: The follow-up visits post laser surgery are fewer. In open surgery, the risks of cuts opening or wounds are higher. These issues are absent in laser surgery. Follow-up visits are, therefore, rare.
  • Recurrence: Piles recurring after laser surgery is rare. There are no external cuts or infections. Therefore, the risk of piles recurring is low.
  • Post-surgical infections: Post-surgical infections are minimal. There are no cuts, external or internal wounds. The incision is invasive and through a laser beam. As such, no post-surgical infections occur.

Disadvantages of Laser Piles Surgery

No surgery is free from drawbacks. Laser Piles Surgery has some drawbacks. These are:

  • Expensive Equipment: Laser Piles Surgery requires high-quality and advanced equipment. Only a few hospitals have this facility. Finding reliable and affordable laser surgery options is often difficult.
  • Training: Surgeons performing the surgery must have required training. Untrained surgeons can cause complications. Patients must check the credibility and experience of the surgeon.
  • Spare Laser: Laser beams for treating diseases are difficult. The laser fiber is only available for limited cases. As such, extra laser fiber is essential during surgery.
  • Uncontrollable Bleeding: Laser surgery can cause uncontrolled bleeding in rare cases. Healthy tissues can get affected. It can cause significant damage.
  • Fibrosis: Laser beams can cause tissue fibrosis. It can result in tissue fissures in the future. It is a secondary complication in Laser Piles Surgery.
  • Anesthesia: The effect of anesthesia reduces during surgery. It can create complications once the patient wakes while in surgery.

When to see a doctor?

Consult a doctor if you are bleeding while passing stool. If home remedies fail even after a week, seek immediate medical attention. Rectal bleeding might occur due to various reasons. Therefore, it is essential to have proper screening and diagnosis. Look for signs such as changes in consistency or color.

Seek immediate care in case of significant rectal bleeding. Other emergency symptoms include fainting or dizziness.

Prevention

Preventing piles is extremely easy. However, we ignore these habits resulting in piles. We need to keep our stools soft for easy passing. Prevention strategies for keeping them away are:

  • Eat high-fiber foods such as whole grains, vegetables, and fruits
  • Drink fluids, water, and juices
  • Considering fiber supplements
  • Avoid straining when passing stool
  • Do not avoid the urge
  • Exercise and stay active
  • Avoid long sitting periods

Conclusion

Consult our proctologist in case you are showing symptoms of severe piles issues. Notice symptoms like burning sensation, itching, or strains in bowel movements. Do not ignore chronic constipation symptoms. In case of any of the above symptoms, visit the hospital immediately.

Medica Superspecialty Hospital, Kolkata’s Laser Proctology Program strives towards treating through the minimal invasive technique. Our renowned and experienced surgeons who will spend a significant amount of time with you in order to diagnose your condition. We have all types of diagnostic facilities available at our premises to provide you with the correct diagnostic results. All pre-surgery medical diagnostics are done for you right here at Medica.

All you need to know about Pilonidal Sinus

All you need to know about Pilonidal Sinus

Herbert Mayo first described pilonidal sinus disease in 1833, with ‘pilus’ denoting hair and ‘nidus’ denoting nest and the disease is known to affect 26 individuals per population of 100,000.

When a small tunnel or hole forms within the skin, it is called pilonidal sinus (PNS). The hole is filled with pus or fluid and results in forming a cyst. PNS is found at the upper part of a human bottom. The cyst is filled with dirt, debris, and hair. PNS causes significant pain and can also become infected. Once infected, it secretes blood and pus with foul smells. 

Men are particularly vulnerable to this condition. It is common among younger people. PNS is more common among people with sitting jobs, such as cab drivers. 

What are the Causes?

Experts are yet to find the exact reason for this condition. Once we hit puberty, there are hormonal changes. These changes might increase the risks of PNS. It can also occur from the clothes we wear, friction, hair growth, or long sitting hours.

Sitting for long hours can force the hair in that region to disturb the skin. The body then starts an immune reaction against it. It results in cysts around the hair. Many sinuses can join beneath the skin and cause PNS. 

Signs and Symptoms 

It is critical to identify PNS and recognize the signs early on. The earliest sign includes small and dimple-like depression. This depression occurs on the skin’s surface. Once infected, this depression becomes a cyst. It is a closed and fluid-filled sac. It can also be an abscess or swollen tissue. The top signs & symptoms are: 

  • Cyst swells up
  • Pain while standing or sitting
  • Sore and reddened skin around the place
  • Blood or pus drains from the area
  • Foul order of the pus 
  • Hair protrudes from the infected area
  • Many holes or sinus tracts within the skin
  • A less common symptom is low-grade fever

Risk factors

Risk factors that increase susceptibility to PNS are: 

  • Youngsters in their twenties
  • Obesity
  • Male sex
  • Inactive lifestyle
  • Unhealthy eating habits
  • Work required long hours of sitting
  • Coarse or stiff hair
  • Excessive body hair
  • Overweight or obesity
  • Wearing tight clothes

What is the Treatment?

Treatment for PNS comprises medications, manual removal, injection, or surgery. The treatment options are: 

  • Traditional treatment: Doctors suggest broad-spectrum antibiotics in early diagnosis. Symptoms include no severe pain and no inflammation. This antibiotic helps in treating several bacteria forms. The antibiotic is not used for healing the sinus tracts. Rather, it provides relief from discomfort and infection. Doctors then suggest a follow-up test. It is important to remove hair and shave. Keeping good hygiene is essential. 
  • Lancing: It is a manual process of removing the cyst. The doctors cut the skin by using sharp equipment. This releases the infected matter. The method reduces symptoms from pus or abscess. Patients receive a local anesthetic before the procedure. Scalpel is then used for opening the abscess. The process cleans any hair, pus, or blood inside the cyst. 

A sterile dressing is used for packing the wound. This helps the wound to heal from the inside out. Healing generally occurs within three or four weeks. The process does not need further treatment.

  • Phenol Injection: This treatment involves using chemical injection. The doctor first administers an anesthetic. It is followed by phenol injection. It is an antiseptic chemical compound injected into the abscess or cyst. This process is generally repeated many times. The lesion hardens and closes.

This treatment is rare due to the high rate of recurrence. Doctors often prefer surgery over phenol injection. 

  • Surgery: Doctors suggest surgical treatment for many sinus tracks or recurring PNS. The first step is administering a local anesthetic. The surgeon opens the lesions and removes the debris and pus. The surgery is completed after stitching and closing the wounds.

It is important to know how to remove the dressings and make a fresh one. It is recommended to shave the site. This helps is preventing hair growth and opens the wound. 

Outlook

Pilonidal management depends on the wound’s severity, disorder, and treatment type. The PNS usually clears up after 4-8 weeks post-surgery. Return to the workplace is dependent on several factors. These include the type of procedure, ability to recover, and job type. Certain do’s and don’ts’ can help in quick recovery. 

Do’s 

  • Keep the wound clean
  • Check the affected site in regular manner
  • Wear loose-fitting and comfortable cotton underwear
  • Eat fiber to avoid straining during bowel movements
  • Maintain a hygiene lifestyle 

Don’t 

  • Avoid lifting heavy weights and objects
  • Avoid strenuous exercise at least a few weeks after surgery 
  • Avoid bike rides for a least six to eight weeks 
  • Avoid swimming until the wound heals completely

Prevention 

Preventing PNS is easy. Improving daily habits can prevent them from recurring. These steps are: 

  • Wash and dry your bottom area and private parts 
  • Weight loss in case you are overweight or obese
  • Avoid long hours of sitting. Engage in light walks while working
  • Shave the area around your bottom. It is important to use good-quality hair removal products 
  • You can also opt for permanent removal of hairs from the area 
  • Routine checks of the area

Conclusion 

PNS is not a life-threatening disorder. Yet, it can create significant problems in daily life. Treatment becomes difficult once the cyst becomes chronic. So, it is important to seek expert help. Doctors recommend a quick diagnosis in case of any initial symptoms. It is important to have an honest conversation with the healthcare provider. This helps in the identification of symptoms and quick recovery. 

Medica Superspecialty Hospital, Kolkata’s Laser Proctology Program strives towards treating through the minimal invasive technique. Our renowned and experienced surgeons who will spend a significant amount of time with you in order to diagnose your condition. We have all types of diagnostic facilities available at our premises to provide you with the correct diagnostic results. All pre-surgery medical diagnostics are done for you right here at Medica.

Hormonal Imbalance in Women : Impact on health

Hormonal Imbalance in Women: Impact on health

If you are experiencing unexplained fatigue or weight gain, mood swings, sleeplessness or skin problems, don’t ignore those signs. You might have hormonal imbalances, which would need medical attention.

Hormones are chemicals produced by glands in our endocrine system which are then released into the bloodstream. There’s an imbalance when there is too much or too little of a hormone. These hormones regulate a clutch of body functions like appetite and metabolism, heart rate, sleep cycles, reproductive cycles and sexual function, body temperature, general growth and development, mood and stress levels.

In natural course, women experience several phases of hormonal imbalance in their lifetime, including during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, childbirth, breast-feeding, peri-menopause, menopause, and post-menopause. Since women have different endocrine organs and cycles, they are at greater risk than men of developing different types of hormonal imbalance disorders.

If the balance is off, it could manifest in a variety of symptoms like heavy or irregular periods, including missed periods, a stopped or frequent period, hirsutism (excessive facial or body hair), acne, etc.

Common symptoms of hormonal imbalance

Although symptoms would depend on which glands and hormones are affected, some of the more common ones include:

  • Heavy, irregular, or painful periods
  • Unexplained changes in weight
  • Profuse sweating, hot flashes
  • Sleeplessness, fatigue
  • Dry skin or rashes
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Changes in blood pressure, heart rate
  • Osteoporosis (weak, brittle bones)
  • Changes in blood glucose count
  • Irritability, anxiety, depression
  • Feeling thirsty all the time
  • Headaches, blurred vision
  • Changes in appetite, bloating
  • Reduced sex drive
  • Infertility
  • Acne during or before menstruation
  • Uterine bleeding not linked to menstruation
  • Increased hair growth on face, neck, chest, or back (may indicate polycystic ovaries)
  • Tenderness in breast
  • Deepening of voice

There are a few medical conditions triggering irregular hormonal imbalances in women, while certain lifestyle habits and environmental factors could also play a role. These include:

  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
  • Hormone replacement or birth-control medications
  • Premature menopause
  • Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI)
  • Cancer of the ovaries
  • Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2)
  • Underactive or overactive thyroid (Hypothyroidism or Hyperthyroidism)
  • Chronic or extreme stress
  • Poor diet resulting in lack of proper nutrition
  • Being overweight
  • Endocrine gland injury
  • Severe allergic reactions or infections
  • An effect of cancer treatment (chemotherapy or radiation therapy)
  • Pancreatitis (particularly if hereditary)

Treatment options

Treatment protocols vary from person to person, depending on the cause. Some treatment options for women with hormone imbalances include:

  • Hormone control or birth control: For those not trying for a family, doctors often prescribe medications containing forms of estrogen and progesterone to regulate irregular menstrual cycles and symptoms. Birth-control pills or an intrauterine device (IUD) are also often suggested.
  • Vaginal estrogen: Vaginal dryness associated with changes in estrogen levels can be addressed by creams containing estrogen applied directly to vaginal tissues to reduce symptoms. Estrogen tablets and rings are also advised to reduce vaginal dryness.
  • Hormone replacement therapies: Medications to temporarily reduce severe symptoms associated with menopause, such as hot flashes or night sweats are often prescribed.
  • Eflornithine: This cream is advised to deter excessive facial hair growth in women.
  • Clomiphene and letrozole: For women with PCOS trying to conceive, these medicines help in stimulating ovulation. Sometimes, injections of gonadotropins can help increase the chances of pregnancy.
  • Assisted reproductive technology: In-vitro fertilization (IVF) and other assisted reproductive techniques can be helpful in inducing pregnancy in women suffering from infertility due to conditions like PCOS.
  • Metformin: Helps manage or lower blood sugar levels in Type 2 diabetics.
  • Levothyroxine: Can help improve symptoms of hypothyroidism.

Apart from these medical treatments, a few changes in lifestyle can also help reduce the chances and symptoms of hormonal imbalances. You can try some of these:

  • Watch your weight
  • Have a balanced diet
  • Exercise regularly
  • Avoid triggers to hot flashes, like warm weather and spicy foods
  • Cope with stress better with yoga, meditation, etc
  • Control sugary foods and refined carbohydrates
  • Avoid packaged foods
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