What is a Hysterectomy?
The problem in the uterus is a common condition in females. In most cases, the women can get relief through consuming prescribed drugs. However, in some situations, the doctor suggests removing the uterus. The surgical process of removing the uterus is a method known as hysterectomy.
Many women choose hysterectomy to end their fibroid symptoms for good. Menstrual bleeding stops after hysterectomy, pelvic pressure is relieved, frequent urination improves, and new fibroids cannot grow. Hysterectomies are performed as a last resort as it can cause certain complications in the patients. That is because once the operation is performed, women won’t be able to conceive again. Therefore, most hysterectomies are opted for women past their child-bearing ages.
The doctor does the surgery in three ways. They are laparoscopic, vaginal, and abdominal hysterectomies. The procedure chosen will be determined by the size of the uterus and several other factors.
Conditions treated through Hysterectomy:
- Abnormal uterine bleeding
- Cervical cancer
- Endometrial cancer
- Fallopian tube cancer
- Ovarian cancer
- Pelvic pain
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What are the Types of Hysterectomy?
There are five types of hysterectomy that depends on the part of your uterus that is being removed:
- Total Hysterectomy: Both the uterus and cervix are removed.
- Subtotal (partial) Hysterectomy or Supracervical hysterectomy: The uterus is removed, but the cervix is left in place.
- Total Hysterectomy with Bilateral Salpingo-Oophorectomy: The uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries are all removed. This procedure is performed if the woman has cancer of the ovaries or uterus, or if she suffers from chronic pain caused by recurrent pelvic infection or endometriosis.
- Radical hysterectomy: The uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, upper part of the vagina, and associated pelvic ligaments and lymph nodes are all removed. If a woman has cancer of the cervix, ovaries, fallopian tubes, or uterus, this procedure is performed.
- Hysterectomy with Prophylactic Bilateral Salpingectomy: Due to research indicating that early ‘ovarian’ cancers originate in the tubes, most doctors now recommend removing the fallopian tubes at the time of hysterectomy.
What are the Different Surgical Techniques for Hysterectomy?
Hysterectomy via Open Surgery: An abdominal hysterectomy is an open surgical procedure. This is the most common method of hysterectomy, accounting for approximately 54% of all benign diseases. An abdominal hysterectomy is performed by making a 5- to 7-inch incision across the belly, either up and down or side to side. The uterus is then removed through this incision by the surgeon. All of these diseases are harmless.
Hysterectomy via Minimally Invasive Procedures: There are several methods for performing a minimally invasive (MIP) hysterectomy. They are:
- Vaginal Hysterectomy: A vaginal incision is made, and the uterus is removed through this incision. There is no visible scar from the incision.
- Laparoscopic Hysterectomy: This surgery is performed using a laparoscope, which is a tube with a lighted camera and surgical tools inserted through several small cuts in the belly or, in the case of a single site laparoscopic procedure, one small cut in the belly button. The hysterectomy is done from outside the body, with the surgeon watching the procedure on a video monitor.
- Laparoscopic-Assisted Vaginal Hysterectomy: The surgeon uses laparoscopic tools in the belly to help remove the uterus through a vaginal incision.
- Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Hysterectomy: Similar to a laparoscopic hysterectomy, but the surgeon controls a sophisticated robotic system of surgical tools from outside the body. The surgeon can use natural wrist movements and view the hysterectomy on a three-dimensional screen thanks to advanced technology.
Six percent of women in the age group 30–49 years have undergone a hysterectomy in India
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What to Expect after Hysterectomy?
Patients should prepare mentally and physically to experience the side effects of the surgery.
If the ovaries were also removed during the hysterectomy, you will be in menopause. If your ovaries were not removed, you may experience menopause at a younger age than you would have otherwise.
Most people are advised to avoid sex and heavy lifting for six weeks following a hysterectomy.
The majority of people polled after a hysterectomy believe the procedure was successful in improving or curing their primary problem (for example, pain or heavy periods).
Get in touch with our doctors if you are experiencing any side-effects such as:
- Heavy vaginal bleeding and vaginal discharge require immediate medical treatment. You may feel vaginal bleeding after 24 hours of the surgery. You may also feel vaginal discharge after a few weeks of the surgery.
- You may also experience extreme weakness. You must take a rest to improve your body strength and decrease fatigue.
- If you feel fever, diarrhoea, constipation, heavy bleeding, or severe pain, you must consult your doctor.
- The side effects like depression and confusion decrease with time.