A woman’s menstruation normally lasts 28 days, however menstrual cycles can last anywhere from 21 to 35 days. According to the findings of a large-scale survey done across India in 2020, over 23% of women aged 20 to 29 years old had menstrual issues. But it’s no news, as over half of all women living here experience irregular menstrual cycles. Irregular cycles are a big source of concern for women, and if left ignored, they can lead to a variety of other medical issues.
Our Obs & Gynae department is fully integrated with cutting-edge treatment units and equipment, allowing our gynaecologists to provide you with the best possible care.
Consult Our Experts
Irregular periods, also known as oligomenorrhea, can be caused by a variety of factors. Many of them have something to do with hormone levels.
The primary hormones that regulate the menstrual cycle are oestrogen, progesterone, and follicle-stimulating hormone. It can cause irregular periods if something disturbs or changes the way these hormones rise and decrease during each cycle.
Periods that are irregular on occasion are frequent and normally do not cause concern. The following are some of the factors that may contribute to irregular periods:
- Natural hormonal shifts
- Birth control pills
- Endurance exercise
- Weight loss
- Underlying health conditions
- Thyroid disease
- Eating disorder
Period irregularities are rarely hazardous. Persistent or long-term irregularity, on the other hand, may increase the risk.
Iron deficiency: Anaemia is caused by a lack of iron in the blood. A person’s blood loss may be sufficient to produce an iron shortage if their periods are heavy or frequent.
Infertility: Anovulation, or when the body fails to release an egg, can cause irregular periods. This could indicate that a woman is having trouble conceiving.
Cardiovascular disease: Estrogen deficiency can also increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Osteoporosis: Ovulation is a source of oestrogen, which aids in bone health. Due to a lack of oestrogen, a person who does not ovulate frequently may be at a higher risk for osteoporosis.
When to see a doctor?
Consult a doctor if you have any of the following symptoms:
- You’re under 45 and your periods have suddenly become erratic.
- Periods occur more frequently than every 21 days or less frequently than every 35 days.
- Your periods are more than 7 days long.
- Between your shortest and longest menstrual cycles, there is a significant variation (at least 20 days).
- You have irregular periods and are having trouble conceiving.
To ascertain the actual cause behind your menstrual condition, your gynaecologist would perform a series of diagnostic examinations. The treatment will be determined by the cause of the abnormality.
The tests done include:
- Physical examination
- Blood tests
- Imaging tests
It is usual to have irregular periods from time to time, and it does not necessitate therapy. In most cases, irregularities caused by puberty, perimenopause, or contraception do not require therapy.
Changing Your Way of Life
Oligomenorrhea can be treated using behavior modification, diet, psychotherapy, and stress reduction strategies when it is caused by a low basal metabolic index and high stress levels. When anovulation is caused by obesity, it can be treated by losing weight.
Birth control pills are frequently used to restore menstrual cycle regularity, particularly in polycystic ovarian disease. They’re perfectly safe to use, especially if the patient doesn’t want to get pregnant.
Treating the Medical Conditions that Caused it
If hyperthyroidism is the reason, antithyroid medications, radioactive iodine, or thyroidectomy are used to treat it. If Cushing syndrome is the cause, it is treated with drugs that block excess cortisol production, such as ketoconazole, mitotane, and metyrapone.
In the case of adnexal and adrenal tumors, surgery may be required.
Hyperthyroidism may necessitate thyroidectomy.
If the prolactinoma is large enough to cause compressive symptoms, surgical removal may be required.